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1Green, R., et al; Vitamin B12 Deficiency. (2017) Nat Rev Dis Primers. 29;3:17040. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2017.40.

2 Pawlak, R., et al The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature. (2016). Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 May;68(5):541-8. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.46.

3Caudill, MA., et al; FASEB J. 2017 Maternal choline supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy improves infant information processing speed: a randomized, double-blind, controlled feeding study;32(4):2172-2180. doi: 10.1096/fj.201700692RR.

4Shaw, GM., et al; Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population., (2009) (5):714-9. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181ac9fe7.

5Rogne T. Maternal vitamin B12 in pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: A systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol (2017); 185(3):212-223

6Beulens JWJ., et al; Influence of duration of metformin on cobalamin deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin. Acta Diabetol (2015);52(1):47-53.

7Lam, JR., et al; Proton pump inhibitor and histamine 2 receptor antagonist use and vitamin B12 deficiency. (2013) JAMA. 11;310(22):2435-42. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.280490

8Carmel, R., (1997) Cobalamin, the stomach, and aging. Am J Clin Nutr. ;66(4):750-9.

9Ness-Abramof, R., et al;Prevalence and evaluation of B12 deficiency in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. (2006) Am J Med Sci. Sep;332(3):119-22.

10American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. https://asmbs.org/articles/new-study-finds-most-bariatric-surgeries-performed-in-northeast-and-fewest-in-south-where-obesity-rates-are-highest-and-economies-are-weakest

11Majumder, S., et al; Sure Obes Relatability Dis. 2013 Nov-Dec;9(6):1013-9. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2013.04.017. Epub 2013 May 24.Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: preventive strategies and key recommendations.