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2Tucker, KL., et al; Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations relate to intake in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr (2000) 71(20) pg 514-522

3Alles B., et al (2017) Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat Eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study. Nutrientsl5;9(9). pii:E1023. doil0.3390/nu9091023.

4American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. https://asmbs.org/articles/new-study-finds-most-bariatric-surgeries-performed-in-northeast-and-fewest-in-south-where-obesity-rates-are-highest-and-economies-are-weakest

5Ness-Abramof, R., et al;Prevalence and evaluation of B12 deficiency in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. (2006) Am J Med Sci. Sep;332(3):119-22.

6Owhin, SO., et al; Open Med. Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients in a tertiary institution, South-South Nigeria (2019) SAGE 7: 2050312119853433. Published online 2019 May 23. doi: 10.1177/2050312119853433PMCID: PMC6535731PMID: 31205703

7Beulens, JWJ., et al; Influence of duration of metformin on cobalamin deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin. Acta Diabetol (2015);52(1):47-53.

8Lam, JR., et al; Proton pump inhibitor and histamine 2 receptor antagonist use and vitamin B12 deficiency. (2013) JAMA. 11;310(22):2435-42. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.280490

9Carmel, R., (1997) Cobalamin, the stomach, and aging. Am J Clin Nutr. ;66(4):750-9..

10Juster-Switlyk, K. & Smith AG. Updates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. (2016) F1000Res. 5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-738. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7898.1. eCollection 2016.

11Soofi, S., et al; Prevalence and possible factors associated with anaemia, and vitamin B 12 and folate deficiencies in women of reproductive age in Pakistan: analysis of national-level secondary survey data. (2017) 7(12):e018007. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018007.

12Kamdi, SP., et al; Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy Indian doctors. (2013) Bioinformation (4):193-6. doi: 10.6026/97320630009193. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

13 Seshadri, S., et al; (2002) N Eng J Med. 346(7):476-83.Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

14 Syed, EU., et al; Open Neurol J. (2013) 7:44-8. doi: 10.2174/1874205X01307010044. eCollection 2013.Vitamin B12 supplementation in treating major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

15 van Meurs, JBJ., Homocysteine Levels and the Risk of Osteoporotic Fracture, NEJM (2004) 350(20) 2033-41.

16 Shaw, GM., et al; Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population., (2009) (5):714-9. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181ac9fe7.

17Caudill, MA., et al; FASEB J. 2017 Maternal choline supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy improves infant information processing speed: a randomized, double-blind, controlled feeding study;32(4):2172-2180. doi: 10.1096/fj.201700692RR.

18Arendt, J. F., et al; (2013). ElevatedPlasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer: A Population-Based CohortStudy. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 105 (23),1799-1805.

19Glass, GBJ., et al; Hydroxocobalamin. I. Blood Levels and Urinary Excretion of Vitamin B12 inMan After a Single Parenteral Dose of Aqueous Hydroxocobalamin, Aqueous Cyanocobalamin and Cyanocobalamin Zinc-Tannate Complex. 196118:511-21.

20Sharabi, A.,et al. Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral route. Bj J Clin Pharmacol. 2003. 56(6):635-638.