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1Bonaccorso, RL., et al; Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by  Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin‐4, Mol Pharm. 2015; 12(9):3502-3506.

2 Mathews, FS., et al;Crystal structure of human intrinsic factor: Cobalamin complex at 2.6-Å resolution. (2007) PNAS 104 (44) 17311-17316; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0703228104

3Nielsen, MJ., et al; Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepat. 2012 May 1;9(6):345-54.

4Petrus AK., et al; Vitamin B12 as a carrier for the oral deliveryof insulin.2007. ChemMedChem; 2(12)1717-21

5Petrus AK., et al; Exploring the implications of vitamin B12 conjugation to insulin on insulin receptor binding. 2009. ChemMedChem. 4(3):421-6

6Clardy, SM., et al; Vitamin B12 in drug delivery:breaking through the barriers to a B12 bioconjugate pharmaceutical. 2011.Expert Opin Drug Deliv;8(1):127-40.

7Clardy-James,S., et al;Synthesis, characterization and pharmacodynamics ofvitamin-B(12)-conjugated glucagon-like peptide-1. 2013.ChemMedChem. 8(4):582-6.

8Henry KE., et al; Vitamin B12 conjugation of peptide-YY(3-36)decreases food intake compared to native peptide-YY(3-36) upon subcutaneous administration in male rats. Endocrinology 2015 ;156(5):1739-49.

9Workinger, JL., et al; Systemically AdministeredPlant Recombinant Holo-Intrinsic Factor Targets the Liver and is not Affected by Endogenous B12 levels. (2019) Sci Rep 9, 12269

10Vortherms, AR., et al; A water soluble vitamin B12-Re(I) fluorescent conjugate for cell uptake screens: use in the confirmation of cubilin in the lung cancer line A549. (2011) Chem Commun. 47, 9792-9794.

11B12-peptide conjugate and Intrinsic Factor crystal illustrations with permission and courtesy of Prof. R.P. Doyle, Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University.