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X Fact
July 13, 2020
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We Need to Understand the Basics of Genes to Understand Nutrition

A gene is made up of only 4 repeating molecules. Adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine are called 'bases' and their arrangement in a particular order is what stores the genetic information in DNA. Each 'base' binds only to one other of the foursome which determines the sequence in the opposite strand of the double helix. Cytosine can only pair with guanine and adenine only with thymine and hundreds to thousands of 'base pairs' in various sized genes preserve the instructions in their 'spelling' or sequence for producing enzymes needed to metabolize nutrients.

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Words You May Not Know
Base Pair
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Base Pair

A base pair contains two chemical bases bonded to one another forming a "rung of the DNA ladder." The DNA molecule consists of two strands that wind around each other like a twisted ladder. Each strand has a backbone made of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups. Attached to each sugar is one of four bases--adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases, with adenine forming a base pair with thymine, and cytosine forming a base pair with guanine.

Cytosine

Cytosine is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA

Thymine

Thymine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

Guanine

Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine.

Cytosine
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Cytosine

Cytosine is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA

Guanine
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Guanine

Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine.

Thymine
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Thymine

Thymine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

Who Wrote This
Jonathan Bortz MD
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Jonathan’s background as a practicing diabetes specialist for 15 years and 17-year career developing nutritional prescriptive products for the pharmaceutical industry has contributed to his ability to understand nutrients, how they work and why they are important.

Over the years he has acquired broad and in-depth knowledge in minerals, essential fatty acids and other nutrients, but has special expertise in Vitamin B12 and choline metabolism. He is often asked to speak at national and international venues to articulate why B12, folate and choline are so important to gene function, brain development, liver and cardiovascular health. He applies pharmaceutical standards to nutrient science and has developed a unique ability to translate complicated concepts into simple promotional messages that resonate with practitioners and consumers. He has developed dozens of innovative nutritional products, of which many are category leaders in the US. Jonathan obtained his medical degree from the University of the Witwatersrand Medical School in South Africa and did his fellowship in Endocrinology at Washington University in St. Louis, MO.

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