An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly considers healthy tissue a harmful substance. This is called an autoimmune disorder. Each type of antibody is unique and defends the body against one specific type of antigen.
The Role of Antibodies in Giving Spuriously High B12 Measurements
Urinary MMA is a Superior Test For Detecting B12 Deficiency, and for Good Reason.
The MMA Test Teaches a Lot About Why B12 is So Important for Energy
First Study to Find a Link